Proteins are one of the most important groups of compounds in living organisms. Most of the chemical reactions in a living organism take place with the participation of specific enzymes. In addition to enzymes, the cell contains many other proteins that perform structural or storage functions. There are thousands of different proteins in a living cell and they are involved in all physiological processes. The analysis of the protein composition of the studied organisms allows the discovery of previously unknown and theoretically unpredictable interactions and the functions of individual proteins. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of all proteins in the tested organism, tissue or cell are called proteomics.
Proteomic studies are carried out using two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI TOF mass spectrometry.
Proteomic research conducted in the Laboratory includes studies on interactions between organisms (studies on galls), plant response to drought (grains, legumes) and others. Proteomic techniques are also used to study the properties of proteins obtained in biotechnological experiments. The universality of proteomic techniques allows them to be used in most of the work on living material.